This atlas is a comprehensive compendium of congeni- and two-dimensional echocardiographic examples. The tal cardiac morphology as depicted by tomographic two- examples and experience span all ages and may be used dimensional echocardiography. Anatomic specimens by both pediatric and adult cardiologists. The intended cut in planes of section corresponding to the echocar- emphasis is on tomographic morphology and not on diographic views help in the understanding of the echo- specialty applications such as fetal, contrast, or Dop- cardiographic sections. Composite photographs relate pler echocardiography. different planes of section or cardiac events. Still-frame The tomographic approach to congenital anomalies is photography cannot always adequately relate real-time the imaging modality of the 80s and is applicable to echocardiography, computerized tomography, and imaging events. However, the emphasis of this text is to demonstrate the tomographic morphology and no at- magnetic resonance imaging. It is the building block tempt is made to discuss in detail functional or physio- from which the expected three-dimensional imaging logic events. techniques of the 1990s will be developed. The wide- spread clinical application of these imaging modalities Those performing two-dimensional echocardiography should have a working knowledge of cardiac anatomy has rekindled interest in cardiac anatomy and pathol- and common congenital aberrations. This is an in-depth ogy, particularly in the evaluation of patients with con- tomographic atlas not only of the common congenital genital heart disease.
A major contribution to knowledge of medieval Occitan literature.
Philosophers of science have produced a variety of definitions for the notion of one sentence, theory or hypothesis being closer to the truth, more verisimilar, or more truthlike than another one. The definitions put forward by philosophers presuppose at least implicitly that the subject matter with which the compared sentences, theories or hypotheses are concerned has been specified,! and the property of closeness to the truth, verisimilitude or truth likeness appearing in such definitions should be understood as closeness to informative truth about that subject matter. This monograph is concerned with a special case of the problem of defining verisimilitude, a case in which this subject matter is of a rather restricted kind. Below, I shall suppose that there is a finite number of interrelated quantities which are used for characterizing the state of some system. Scientists might arrive at different hypotheses concerning the values of such quantities in a variety of ways. There might be various theories that give different predictions (whose informativeness might differ , too) on which combinations of the values of these quantities are possible. Scientists might also have measured all or some of the quantities in question with some accuracy. Finally, they might also have combined these two methods of forming hypotheses on their values by first measuring some of the quantities and then deducing the values of some others from the combination of a theory and the measurement results.